I Loved You All

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I Loved You All

A New York Times Book Review Notable Book of 2000
A 2001 New York Times Book Review New and Noteworthy Paperback
Top 15 List of Amazon.com's Editor's Recommendations for Fiction
An Original Voices September Selection of Borders Books
A Barnes & Noble Editor's Pick for Women's fiction
Winner of the WLA Banta Award


(Hyperion  2000 - Jennifer Barth, Editor; Bloomsbury British Edition titled "Waltzing through Flaws")

Publisher's Description of Novel

          With a tension that builds from the first page, I Loved You All is a lyrical, funny, and moving portrait of family life and of the peculiarly American politics of abortion rights.  With her extraordinary talent for blending the political with the personal, Sharp demonstrates once again that she is a writer of formidable abilities.  Her new novel tells the story of a family living in the bleak prison town  of Stein, New York.  Marguerite Daigle, who describes herself as a “seventh generation lapsed Louisiana Catholic” and “a displaced person in the middle of nowhere,” holds her family together passionately and creatively, if unconventionally.  All that unravels in the summer of 1977 when her daughters are eight and fifteen and the pressures of life as a single mother begin to weigh too heavily on Marguerite’s shoulders.  Her only relief comes in the form of more alcohol than is good for her. When her brother encourages her to dry out at a Louisiana home called The Place,  Isabel Flood, a local baby sitter and religious right-to-lifer steps in to care for Marguerite’s children in Stein.  Isabel Flood’s influence on Marguerite’s older daughter Mahalia grows until it is stronger than her own mother’s.  When Marguerite returns after cleaning up her life, she finds that her life is no longer entirely her own.

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    Critical Reviews
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        "What memorable characters Paula Sharp creates in I Loved You All and what a great story she tells.  Sharp writes with splendid humor and intelligence,  nowhere more so than in dealing with the tricky right to life debate.  This is a  thoroughly enjoyable book."
                                                                                                        -  Margot Livesey -

Publishers' Weekly (June 26, 2000, Starred Review): "About midway through Sharp's fourth novel, the eight-year-old narrator, Penny Daigle, does a flip in the air for the "sheer perilous pleasure" of it.  The same sensation is elicited in the reading of this exuberant and often hilarious story about growing up in bleak small-town New York with a restless and loving family.  It's 1977, and Penny Daigle, a girl of relentless energy and curiosity, and her uncertain and judgmental sister, 15-year-old Mahalia, must deal with their single mother Marguerite's alcoholism and eventual departure to "The Place," a home in Louisiana for recovering alcoholics.  Marguerite's boyfriend, a parole officer at the big state prison in town,  and her puckish brother, F.X., a reporter given to dazzling monologues, are going along with Marguerite to keep an eye on her, and so Mahalia and Penny are saddled with straitlaced, pro-life babysitter Isabel Flood.  Without taking sides or descending into cliché, Sharp (Crows over a Wheatfield) brilliantly navigates the political and religious waters that swirl around the pro-life movement as Isabel seeks to spread her message around town with Mahalia's zealous, and Penny's reluctant help.  On the way, Penny meets a carnival of characters, including Mrs. Fury, who places Penny before a mirror to show her who her worst enemy is, and shy Katie, who, at Penny's urging, stows away in a van headed for Albany.  As the town divides over the abortion issue, the dynamics of public dispute are mirrored in the sensitive negotiations of the Daigle family when Marguerite returns to find Mahalia determined to live with Isabel, now totally convinced that abortion is a sin.  The narrative moves swiftly from conflict to conflict, buoyed by Sharp's perfect timing  and occasionally ecstatic prose that renders water moccasins as "black ink dropped in water" and a truck headlight as "a tilted goblet of gold liquid."

Craig Seligman, The New York Times Book Review (August 27, 2000):  "Paula Sharp's fourth novel is strangely gentle and funny for a book about the escalating defiance of anti-abortion fanatics in the late 1970's. .... Sharp has the born novelist's gift of breathing life into her characters.  Even the minor characters seem to get up and step off the page.  The addled churchwomen in Isabel's circle, in particular, are funny, endearing creations.  I could have done happily with more of just about everybody .... I loved this book, probably more than it deserves, but I can't help it -- Sharp's gifts are enormous." 

Olivia Abel, People Magazine
(October 2, 2000):
   "[T]his beautifully written story, full of wry observations about human nature and the abortion debate, will resonate with all those who have ever laughed or cried at their own family's absurdities." 

Ed Neuert,  Salon.com (August 24, 2000):      "Barely three pages into Paula Sharp's second novel, the realization crept in:  that I might be holding the next Oprah book in my hands, and that to my horror I was unabashedly enjoying it.... Sharp manages to construct deep characters and complex relations with just a few sentences -- the sign of a natural storyteller.  She portrays the right-to-lifers of the small prison town in a well-balanced, almost loving manner.  As Penny's uncle says of these virulent souls, 'the worst things people ever do, they do because they believe they're fighting what's wrong.  In that way, good introduces evil back into the world and the circle in complete.'  That's what this novel is:  complete."

Amy C. ReaThe Literal Mind Book Review: (October 18, 2000):  "While the abortion movement of the late 1970's plays a pivotal role in I Loved You All, to claim this book is only about abortion is a grave injustice.  What Paula Sharp's novel is really about is the Daigle family:  Marguerite, a "seventh generation lapsed Louisiana Catholic" who has been transplanted to upstate New York and then widowed; her oldest daughter, Mahalia, a 15-year-old with an intense desire for structure and good ness in her life; and Penny, an incorrigible 8-year old ... [A]s prominent as the [abortion] issue is in this novel, it's never as important as the characters themselves, and that's how Sharp succeeds where other novelists have failed.  The characters are vivid, and Sharp's writing is lyrical and piercing throughout ... I Loved You All is a stunning accomplishment that would have been a mess in less competent hands.  One can only wonder what she'll do to surpass this."  

Lisa Pilnik, Redbook (December Editor's Pick) (December,2000): " A precocious, hyperactive 8-year-old narrator, a religious fanatic, and a formerly blind reporter are just a few of the fascinating characters in Paula Sharp's I Loved You All.  Sharp's last book, the acclaimed Crows over a Wheatfield, was the story of two families devastated by domestic violence; this time she tells the equally memorable tale of the right-to-life movement's impact on one unconventional family in a small town in upstate New York.  Sharp manages to treat a controversial subject with appropriate depth without letting  I Loved You All become a political tract, and her powers of description keep the story going until its dramatic conclusion."

Heather GrimshawBookreporter.com (September 23, 2000):   "A touching depiction of modern families and the dangers and pitfalls they face, I LOVED YOU ALL is both compelling and haunting, while Sharp's writing is witty, fresh, and -- at times -- dizzyingly brilliant.   ... I Loved You All is a rare compilation of compelling plot and fabulous characters who draw readers in from the first page and keep them clinging to every written word." 

Margaret Walters, The London Sunday Times (April 2, 2001): "Child narrators are rarely fully satisfying, but Paula Sharp's 10-year-old Penny proves thoroughly engaging:  Shrewd as well as naive, puzzled but perceptive ... Sharp strikes a fine balance between comedy and potential tragedy. Isabel is never stereotyped.  She is both ridiculous and dangerous, but we see -- through Penny's detached but always sympathetic eyes -- that she is also lonely and vulnerable."

Jackie McGlone, Scotland on Sunday:  "Halfway through the book, its spirited eight-year-old narrator, Penny, does a flip in the air for the "Sheer perilous pleasure" of it.  You can capture a similar thrilling sensation simply by reading this exuberantly hilarious story about growing up n a bleak small town ... Sharp .. has a mordant eye for the quirks of human nature ... It is old-fashioned storytelling at its best.  The characters are so involving--not since To Kill a Mockingbird or the opening chapters of Jane Eyre has there been a more acute and astute child's view of the world -- and so engaging that they remain as if written in indelible ink on the memory."

Wendy Brandmark, Times Literary Supplement: (January 26, 2001): "Penny, whose sharp insights are mixed with childish fantasy and fears, gives a fascinating glimpse into the world of militant anti-abortionists ... a tale of a child lost and found, written with tenderness and generosity."

The London Times (January 24, 2001):  "Paula Sharp draws you in ... with appealing detail.  telling her story through the eyes of a child creates an ideal perspective for the examination of a subject that has the power to raise hackles.  the combination of innocent insight and a very adult way with words is a winning one."

The London Daily Telegraph (January 27, 2001):  "This crisply written, very funny novel floats ideas without drawing conclusions.  Our sympathies sway:  we admire and are enraged by Isabel for her obstinacy and otherworldly patience, and we pity her." 

Barbara Lloyd McMichael,  The Seattle Times (September 3, 2000):   "Paula Sharp borrows a line from Gwendolyn Brooks' bittersweet and unblinking abortion poem called "the mother" for the title of her new novel.  In I Loved You All, Sharp promptly repays the loan and adds substantial interest. ... The characters are intriguing down to the last man, woman and child.  There is pathos, sly wit and dramatic surprise. ... this story is a book-discussion group's dream." 

Susan Hall-Balduf, The Charlotte Observer (Oct. 24, 2000)   In I Loved You All, Paula Sharp gives fair time to her right-to-lifer, Isabel Flood.  We can admire her persistence at picketing the high school where Gwendolyn Brooks' bittersweet poem about abortion is being taught, even the pointless grandeur of her raid on the school library... That we can sympathize at all with such a judgmental woman is a tribute to the author.  Sharp does a splendid job of creating characters who are recognizable and original."  

Jennifer Smith, The Madison Isthmus (August 25, 2000):   "To call I Loved You All a book about abortion is to diminish the scope of this beautifully written novel.  While right-to-life activism in a small New York town forms much of the backdrop for the book's plot, it is above all a novel about family, children's need for belonging, and the chasm that separates the world of adults from that of children ... Sharp's greatest strengths are her rich character development and brisk, poetic use of imagery ... Paula Sharp has crafted a fine book, unpredictable and sensitively written."  

Rob Cline, The Iowa City Icon (August 24, 2000):   "Sharp's impressive handling of an entire ensemble of quirky characters would be enough to set I Loved You All apart from many novels filled with stock characters wading through predictable territory.  But Sharp ups the ante by building her story around the issue of abortion.  Isabel Flood is not merely opposed to abortion.  She is an activist who goes door to door with anti-abortion pamphlets, pickets the public high school in opposition to the teaching of a poem by Gwendolyn Brooks (from which the novel takes its title) and stands firm in the face of opposition from pro-choice opponents and more moderate pro-lifers.  Some readers have been quick to conclude that I Loved You All  is a book about abortion, and many have suggested that it is a pro-choice novel that points out the folly of the radical pro-life position.  But Sharp disputes these claims, arguing that the book is a comic novel that is fundamentally about her characters.  "I never sit down to write a novel until I have really good characters, and Isabel was my favorite character," Sharp said... And in that light, the book is an unqualified success.  Each of Sharp's characters is a carefully drawn, three-dimensional individual full of passions and faults with which they must contend on a day-to-day basis... Almost without exception, Sharp succeeds in creating characters with whom we may feel a sense of connection that reaches beyond our views about any specific issue." 

Detroit Free Press (August 20, 2000): "In I Loved You All, novelist Paula Sharp ... gives the characters' actions an honest logic ... To Penny, Isabel is peculiar ... Her descriptions of Isabel's maneuvers and Mahalia's response are easy for the adult reader to interpret and yet Sharp can be subtle in her stinging wit ...  Sharp does a splendid job of creating characters who are recognizable as types and original in their quirks."

Library Journal (August, 2000):  "Sharp’s novel, her fifth book (e.g., Crows over a Wheatfield), is well worth reading; the author intertwines the themes of family love, alcoholism, abortion, betrayal, and the power of a fanatically held belief. Marguerite Daigle, a widow struggling to raise two daughter in Stein, NY, is drinking too much. When her brother and her finance, David, whisk her away for a drying out treatment, 16-year-old Mahalia and eight-year-old Penny are left in the care of Isabel Flood, a local babysitter who is a fanatic right-to-lifer. Penny, the narrator, later recalls the events, including the effect of abortion on the fragile families of Isabel’s church, the near-breakup of the Daigle family when Mahalia wholeheartedly attaches herself to Isabel , and the family reconciliation when Marguerite returns, cured and married to David. Meanwhile, Isabel’s fanatical protests, including the destruction of the high school library, lead to a prison sentence. All these events, as related by a hyperactive child, take on a slightly comic aspect. Although the narrator offers some comments from her adult perspective, the reader is well aware that these issues are still major concerns in our society. Recommended for all public libraries." Cheryl L. Conway, Univ. of Arkansas Library, Fayetteville. 

David Templeton, Talking Pictures (September 29, 2000):   "Crows over a Wheatfield, set in the strange world of the family court system, became a bestseller in 1996, in part owning to its author's knack for taking a serious, potentially morose subject (domestic violence) and cramming it with unexpected pockets of laugh-out-loud humor.  Now, with I Loved You All, Sharp pulls off an even trickier stunt, producing a riveting comedy about abortion. "
(For more on Talking Pictures, visit metroactive.com.)  

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An Interview with Paula Sharp about

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Q:  I Loved You All has been described as a humorous novel about the politics of abortion.  What inspired you to write a comic novel about such a serious and controversial subject?

       Abortion is a very divisive topic in America today, and so can surely benefit from a little humor as well as serious inquiry into the nature of the characters at the center of the controversy. 

Q: Do you consider yourself pro-choice, and if so, did you find it difficult to write a novel that has a pro-lifer as a protagonist?

      I’m pro-choice, but when I choose a protagonist, I don’t look for someone who agrees with me; I look for a good character.  I  never sit down to write a novel until I have a character in my head whom I think I might enjoy following around for a year or more.  I like characters who are complicated and vivid and energetic.  The character Isabel Flood is a right-to-lifer who has dedicated herself to her religious cause, and she acts with complete obliviousness to worldly demands and her personal needs.  She steps into the middle of a family controversy and complicates emotional issues with her own pressing moral concerns.  When I was working on this book, I loved Isabel Flood, because she is so sincere, and so relentlessly herself, and because her vision of the world is so completely her own.  As the narrator says, she’s like a self-built person, made grain-by-grain, from thin air.  

Q:  F.X. Molineaux, the narrator’s formerly blind uncle, sends anonymous letters to Isabel Flood which he writes from the point of view of an embryo and signs “Fetus Elegante.”  To what extent is the character F.X. the book’s authoritative voice?

      F.X. is a journalist who enjoys controversy and has a lively mind.  I don’t think of F.X. as an authoritative voice, although he is certainly a boisterous one. For me, his purpose is that he blows through the narrative like a hurricane whenever he appears, and he has a continual potential for hilarity and conflict.  He’s a perfect nemesis for Isabel because she can’t make sense of anything he does.  F.X. reminds me of many of my Louisiana uncles, who were vivacious people who appreciated high humor and needless drama.  He is modeled in part after a Baton Rouge uncle of mine, who was also  blind for many years before his vision was restored by eye surgery in the early seventies.  When he phoned us after his surgery, like F.X. he reported that he was sorry he could see because he had just watched television for the first time in twelve years and had learned that the governor of Louisiana was just as ugly as he was stupid.

Q: Isabel Flood is always fiddling with metal puzzles she carries in her pocket.  Do they indicate that she puzzles over the world’s problems but thinks she can solve them?  Do you think Isabel is a sympathetic character whose view of the world is justified?  Do you think she learns in the end, and changes?

      I see Isabel as essentially kind, patient and well-intentioned.  Her character was inspired  in part by an adult I was close to and fond of when I was growing up.   Like Isabel, this person was tightly wound emotionally, repressed, awkward socially and isolated.  Like Isabel, she tinkered with metal and wooden puzzles all the time – the difficult three-dimensional kind that most people fail to solve.  When she died, she had a puzzle collection that numbered in the thousands.

     Isabel is someone for whom human society is puzzling – she lacks the benefit of an upbringing among loving adults, and she has no friendships unrelated to her religious cause.  She has difficulty anticipating and recognizing the emotions and moods of people around her, and of her self.  For her, it takes tremendous work, considerable tinkering and relentless perseverance, to figure out social situations to the degree necessary to  carry out her mission.

     After all she experiences by the end of the novel, Isabel’s moral core does not change, nor does her propensity for continuing to act just as she always has.  After the novel closes, I see her as sitting in Bedford Prison, writing letters to various right-to-life organizations, and emerging to continue her mission.  However, she is altered in one important aspect – her heart has been broken.  Thus, while the way in which she affects the world perseveres, internally her puzzle parts have to readjust themselves.

Q: Do you see Isabel as typifying modern right-to-lifers?

       Ultimately, I did not choose a protagonist whom I saw as a “typical” right-to-lifer.  First of all, this would be difficult, because there are many kinds of pro-lifers, and anti-abortion sentiments arise from many disparate moral sensibilities.  In this country, the right-to-life movement has been engendered both by the politics of prominent Catholic Church authorities such as Cardinal O’Connor, and by fairly recent developments in American Protestantism, such as the Moral Majority and the Christian Coalition.   Isabel is a devout Protestant, but she does not ally herself consciously with Protestant right-to-life politicians or even with the Moral Majority.  Her mission is peculiarly her own.  

Q: Did you do a lot of research on the Right-to-Life movement for this book?  Was it important to you to create a novel that is historically accurate?

       I pored over every available history and legal article on the American right-to-life movement and abortion politics, because I think historical verisimilitude is a necessary element of most novels, and I read every pro-life pamphlet I could get my hands on.  However, I think a fiction writer’s most important research is done by talking to people.  I talked to everyone I could who was pro-life, scores of people, to obtain a richer understanding of the many possible motives, both religious and emotional, that underlie zealous dedication to the right-to-life movement.

       From the beginning, I wanted the novel’s central drama to revolve around the tension between religion and politics.  When I started the book, I was interested in political hierarchies in the right-to-life movement, and in depicting their effect on individual pro-lifers.  The right-to-life movement that arose in the seventies with the Moral Majority has a complicated  structure.  At the bottom, you have the true believers, who seem principally female, who sincerely believe abortion is wrong or sinful – this is often because they belong to churches that embrace pro-life morality.  These people may or may not be political activists; many are guided by people who have clout and authority, such as ministers, or local political leaders vying for the limelight.  These leaders in turn may ally themselves with larger political groups with a broad array of associated but logically unrelated secular agenda (e.g., gun decontrol, opposing taxation, or advocating capital punishment).  Sincere belief in the right-to-life cause tends to melt away at this level – the frequency of Elmer Gantrys gets a little higher. When religious beliefs converge with political agendas in the realm of party politics -- as in the Republican Convention, for example – you have politicians courting the so-called religious right, and simultaneously struggling for some kind of palatable compromise that will get them elected – and the problem such politicians encounter is that true religious belief does not lend itself easily to compromise.  If you believe that abortion is murder, it’s hard to imagine a middle ground.

        And then, alongside this structure built up of religious and political alliances, you have the wild cards:  extremists and mavericks who derail and abet the right-to-life movement through acts of violence.  Like most American political movements, the pro-life movement is multifaceted, and at times self-contradictory.  Isabel Flood ends up betrayed by her own right-to-life community because she is a true believer who does not really understand or care about politics, and because she does not accurately assess the potential for violence among some of her cohorts.

Q:  Why are the right-to-lifers’ actions in I Loved You All directed at a high school teacher who is teaching a poem about abortion, instead of at an abortion clinic?  Do you see the poem the pro-lifers object to, Gwendolyn Brooks’s “the mother,” as being in favor of or against abortion?  Do you see I Loved You All as advocating a particular viewpoint about abortion?

      A central preoccupation of this novel is language itselfat its heart are F.X. Molineaux, the journalist, who never shuts up, who loves words and language, and Isabel Flood, who corrects the 8-year-old Penny whenever she uses non-dictionary words such as “discombobulated.”  I chose to make Brooks’ poem the center of all action in this book in part because I liked the idea of a single poem stirring up so much trouble, and in part because I think that censorship is at the heart of the pro-life movement engendered by Moral Majority politics. 

       I was also enticed by the power of Gwendolyn Brooks’s poem itself.  When “the mother” first came out in 1945, it was highly controversial, and here we are in 2000, and it’s still controversial – how many poems could that be said of?  A curious fact about “the mother” is that people wildly disagree over whether it’s pro-abortion or anti-abortion.  I’ve heard the poem condemned as apologizing for abortion, and conversely, as unfairly presuming feelings of guilt in people who have had abortions.  I think readers are unsure what Brooks’s poem advocates because the poem was never intended to be a piece of advocacy -- it is an attempt to express the nuances of feeling in a particular speaker, who both believes abortion is not wrong and fears that it may be wrong and so tries to justify having had abortions.  The poem captures one voice with unusual complexity and dexterity and feeling – a feat that only a grand dame of American letters like Gwendolyn Brooks could pull off.

    Without Brooks’  literary bravery, we would have been deprived of brilliant portraits of the most pressing conflicts of our times, such as “We Real Cool,” which was also censored, and her long poem “Riot” about the Chicago riots, and “the mother”.  To me, “the mother” is emblematic of what happens to literature that embraces political controversy or prohibited subject matter; people have the tendency to forget that it’s literature, and to attack it.

      I see I Loved You All  as a comic novel whose purpose is to elucidate and entertain.  While I don’t think there could be any doubt in most readers’ minds that the author is pro-choice, my purpose in writing the novel wasn’t to persuade anyone to adopt a given viewpoint; it was instead to write a lively story that contains vivid characters  who seem to breathe real air, who broadcast their feelings and speak their minds.  Even so, I knew as I wrote the novel that I couldn’t prevent some readers from reacting to the story’s content and interpreting it as pushing one viewpoint or another.  Readers are entitled to their reactions --  if you write a book that touches on controversial contemporary issues, you have to accept all kinds of responses, because this is part of the territory.                                                                            
Q: Did you encounter any special difficulty in adopting your narrator, who is a hyperactive, ungovernable eight-year-old?  What struggles did you have in mixing a child’s perspective with the narrator’s older voice?

        Writing an adult novel with a child narrator is extremely difficult.  Even the best adult books with child narrators often end up being treated as if they’re children’s books – this happens with To Kill a Mockingbird and Huck Finn, for example.  When you have a child narrator, the essential challenge is to communicate sophisticated ideas beyond the understanding of the storyteller.  The central problem of first person narrative is exacerbated – how do you get information to the reader over the head of the narrator?  Do you just resort to the hackneyed device of having her suddenly discover her antagonist’s diary under the sofa cushions?

        When I first set out to write this novel, it descended quickly into an amusing story about childhood.  I threw it away after the first 150 pages, and rewrote it as a third person novel focusing initially on Mr. Coker, a reclusive organic farmer  and right-to-lifer who lives with his daughter Lucy on the edge of Stein. I came up with a grim, dark narrative bent on enticing any sensible reader to shoot himself in the head.  This story eventually wrote itself into a hole by culminating in the death of a child.

     I then started over with Penny again, from scratch.  I longed to use a child narrator because I loved the irony of having the person closest to being unborn, who has no pressing moral viewpoint on abortion, commenting on the actions of adults preoccupied with the rights of (unborn) children.  Only a child could attend a church service and proclaim  that the minister was a man “who could make grown-ups jump from their seats and caterwaul.  They were crazy, all of them.” 

      I also knew that it was possible to write a sophisticated story told from a child’s viewpoint – to succeed the writer has to move up close and then back off like a camera lens, speaking now with the mystification of adulthood and then with the mystification of a child.  It’s difficult to do this seamlessly, however.  Most of my rewriting of the novel centered on the transitions between sophisticated voices (summaries of F.X.’s commentaries, for example) and Penny’s.  Once I had Penny in place as a narrator, I enjoyed her in a way that would have been unlikely with someone older – her uncontrollable exuberance and bouts of hilarity gave an energy to the novel which would have been harder to muster up with an adult narrator.  

Q: How long have you been writing, and what made you want to become a writer?

      I published my first story when I was in my twenties, about fifteen years ago.  I Loved You All is my fifth book of fiction and my fourth novel.  I remember wanting to be a writer when I was in second grade.  I have no idea why I developed this plan; I did not know anyone else who had ever wanted to be a writer.  I loved books, the feel of words in my mouth,  the sounds of foreign languages, the ribald stories of my relatives.  Now that I’m a parent myself, I think that artistic talent in children is nothing more or less than a love of something -- children’s talents find them because children seek out what they love to do.  This is why you find children who play three instruments in a family where no one else is musical.  If the adults around them encourage children to pursue what moves them, they can seize the opportunity to be artists.  I was left to do what I wanted as a child.  I wrote long poems and stories when I was little, and a terrible novel about the end of the world when I was in high school, and in college I read Latin American and German literature and translated and wrote poetry and fiction. Throughout my years of motherhood and consuming jobs, I’ve always stayed on course by composing stories in my head and compulsively taking notes for novels.  I can’t imagine life without stories.  I think I would evaporate if I stopped writing.

The paperback edition of  I Loved You All also includes a readers' guide.

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